What best considerations have you made for accessibility in your data collection?
What are Data Collection Methods?
Data collection methods are techniques and procedures used to gather information for research purposes. These methods can range from simple self-reported surveys to more complex experiments and can involve either quantitative or qualitative approaches to data gathering.
Some common data collection methods include surveys, interviews, observations, focus groups, experiments, and secondary data analysis. The data collected through these methods can then be analyzed and used to support or refute research hypotheses and draw conclusions about the study’s subject matter.
Data collection methods play a crucial role in the research process as they determine the quality and accuracy of the data collected. Here are some mejor importance of data collection methods.
- Determines the quality and accuracy of collected data.
- Ensures that the data is relevant, valid, and reliable.
- Helps reduce bias and increase the representativeness of the sample.
- Essential for making informed decisions and accurate conclusions.
- Facilitates achievement of research objectives by providing accurate data.
- Supports the validity and reliability of research findings.
To familiarize ourselves with the concept of universal accessibility, it is important to mention its historical process. In 1948, the United Nations (UN) promulgated the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which drafted the Principles of Equal Rights and Opportunities for all Citizens, but it was not until 1963 at the First International Congress for the Suppression of Architectural Barriers carried out in Switzerland, whose main objective proposes to try new measures for the design of buildings by eliminating barriers that obstruct access for people with disabilities.
In 1982, Spain approved the Law on Social Integration of the Disabled (lismi), in that same year, the UN promoted the development of the World Program of Action towards the Disabled; In 2003, the Law on Equality, Non-Discrimination and Universal Accessibility (LIONDAO) incorporated the concept of universal accessibility in which it promoted equal opportunities benefiting all people; In 2006, the UN again held a convention on the rights of people with disabilities and in 2013, the General Law on the Rights of People with Disabilities and their Social Inclusion established that all services, environments, goods and products be accessible.
The study area of the Technological Development Corporation (CDT) (2018) defines universal accessibility as the condition that spaces usable by all people must meet in safe and comfortable conditions with the aim of moving autonomously and naturally. It is a space that must have equal opportunities and social inclusion for people with different abilities, free of obstacles and barriers (urban, architectural and mobility) that prevent correct movement.
Accessibility seeks the inclusion of all citizens in public and private spaces, it must be “integral and guarantee not only mere accessibility, but also circulation, use, orientation, security and functionality” (Olivera, 2006: 332). Pedestrian mobility is one of the main requirements in the physical accessibility of cities (Ipiña García, 2019: 159).
Universal accessibility is directly related to the quality of life of the inhabitants of a city, it must be understood that people have the right to enjoy all the services that the city can provide, being the responsibility of the public and private sectors to modify the environment to that can be used under conditions of equality, taking into account social, economic and geographical needs.
One of the main problems in terms of universal accessibility is that cities were not designed for the use of all people, but it is a fact that currently regulations, laws, plans, programs, etc. have been implemented that They have gradually transformed some sectors of our cities, improving the quality of life of users. To achieve these changes, it is necessary to have knowledge, empathy and awareness in order to generate simple and intuitive spaces that have equal opportunities.
UNIVERSAL ACCESSIBILITY AS AN IMPORTANT PART OF PUBLIC SPACE
There is an intimate relationship between universal accessibility and public space, due to the permanent dynamics of the inhabitants in the city; so the latter would not exist without public space and it would perish without citizens. “As the city is a historical fact, the public space is also historical; It is part of the cultural manifestations of a civilization, which is always limited in time and space” (Gamboa Samper, 2003: 13).
Since the 19th century, Camillo Sitte, one of the precursors of the German school, considered that the city should be designed for pedestrians; since then, people have thought about creating functional and flexible spaces that can be used by everyone. “Ultimately, the success of a city must be measured in its ability to guarantee access to all citizens to the benefits that have made cities one of the most wonderful human inventions” (D. Davila, 2012: 60). Consequently, public space is a collective site for public use that must guarantee well-being for all people, this includes responding to the needs of citizens, thus promoting universal accessibility.
Squares, parks and gardens are part of the public space, but they are also made up of streets that allow people to move to reach their destination. At a smaller mobility scale, the pedestrian can be defined as any person who travels on foot through public or private space (Municipal Government of Cusco, sf). Pedestrian movement or mobility must meet certain requirements so that it is carried out under quality conditions; accessibility, safety, comfort and attractiveness (Alfonzo, 2005; Pozueta et al., 2009), when satisfied, the pedestrian environment will have the necessary quality for the pedestrian to move, which will have a decisive impact on service levels. pedestrian aspect of the urban environment (Olszewski and Wibowo, 2005) (Larios Gómez, 2017: 6).
In terms of universal accessibility, it is important to adapt at least one accessible pedestrian route in spaces with greater pedestrian flow. In the analysis of an urban space, priority must be given to the implementation of accessible routes that link main avenues, secondary streets, stops and access to public transport and vehicle parking (Boudeguer Simonetti et al., 2010: 39), in this way the spaces They may be used by all people under equal conditions.
The public space is characterized by being easily accessible, allowing interaction between its inhabitants, creating social ties that allow generating a link with the space, this causes citizens to experience their environment, identifying and appropriating the elements that make up the public space. One of the problems we currently have is that society has gradually stopped going to these spaces due to insecurity, inaccessibility, pollution, lack of maintenance on the streets and gardens; generating its abandonment and deterioration.
When the public space meets the characteristics of security, universal accessibility, mobility, identity, inclusion and permanence, it is said to be a quality space that allows the city to be experienced, enjoying the pedestrian routes, observing the architectural elements that are part of it, such as the facades of the buildings, the planters, benches and lamps of the urban furniture.
The parks and gardens that are fundamental in the cities, not only for providing them with green areas, but for preserving a part of their history, in this sense, Segovia and Jordán (2005) affirm that the quality of public space can be evaluated above all by the intensity and quality of the social relationships it facilitates, by its capacity to welcome and mix different groups and behaviors, and by its opportunity to stimulate symbolic identification. cultural expression and integration.
For public space to play the role of being a system that allows interaction between people and the enjoyment of recreational places, it is essential that citizens can enter them without physical barriers, being accessible to all inhabitants, ” An environment is needed with a level of quality that allows environmental sustainability and, of course, services that articulate the appropriate functioning of urban public spaces with the population” (Rueda et al., 2012) (Alvarado Azpeitia et al., 2017 : 131), which consists of generating a public road on which cars, bicycles and public transport can also travel, always giving importance and priority to the pedestrian.
A space accessible to everyone
As noted in previous paragraphs, in the 19th century people were already thinking about creating cities designed for pedestrians, but it was not until 2003 that the term “Universal Accessibility” was implemented, which aims to include all people regardless of your age and physical, visual, mental, hearing and multiple disability condition; creating or adapting spaces that allow their use and movement autonomously and implementing Universal Design or Design for All, benefiting the greatest number of people possible.
Architect Wilson Castellanos Parra mentions that believing that universal accessibility responds exclusively to the needs of people with reduced mobility is a mistake; It is more than a ramp, it is understood as “the condition that environments, processes, goods, products and services, as well as objects or instruments, tools and devices, must meet; to be understandable and applicable to all people” (Castellanos Parra, 2016); In the virtual conference “Universal Accessibility in Colombian Architecture Curricula” he describes some criteria to identify accessibility conditions in environments, these are:
1. Wandering (refers to the spaces of approach, spaces traveled),
2. Apprehension (achieving certain requirements when carrying out any activity such as: signage elements), location (auxiliary services) and communication (interactive communication such as: graphics, information panels, etc.).
Universal accessibility is linked to various topics such as: the chain of accessibility, mobility, design of complete streets, among others; that seek the movement of people in conditions of equality, quality and safety.
The Secretariat of Agrarian, Territorial and Urban Development (sedatu) in collaboration with the Inter-American Development Bank (bid) produced The Street Manual: Road Design for Mexican cities where, in an illustrated manner, a pyramid that classifies the hierarchy is shown. of mobility.
Under this classification, all people can make their trips in inclusive, safe, sustainable and resilient conditions; Priority should be given to pedestrians and drivers of non-motorized vehicles to promote a more efficient and inclusive use of road space (sedatu; Inter-American Development Bank, 2019: 62).