Best English to Gujarati Translate Lessons

 

Translate

Translate

 Translate is the  action and effect of translating  (expressing in one  language  something that has been previously expressed or that is written in a different language). The term can refer both to the interpretation given to a  text  or  speech  and to the material work of the translator.This concept has its etymological origin in Latin. Specifically, we can determine that it comes from the word  tradition , which can be defined as the action of guiding from one place to another. And it is made up of three different parts: the prefix  trans -, which is synonymous with  “from one side to the other” ; the verb  ducere , which means  “to guide” ; and the suffix – cion , which is equivalent to  “action” .

For example:  “The Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges made translations of works by Edgar Allan Poe, Walt Whitman, George Bernard Shaw and other great authors” ,  “The translation of this film is very bad” ,  “The speaker speaks too fast, I think that the translate is not including all its concepts . ”

Types of translation

The types of translate are various. Direct translation is   carried out from a foreign language to the language of the translator (such as the case of Borges translating a text by Poe). Reverse translation ,  on the other hand, takes the form of the translator’s language into a foreign language.

On the other hand, one can speak of literal translation  (when the original text is followed word by word) or  free or literary translation  (the meaning of the original text is respected, although without following the author’s choice of expressions).

However, we cannot ignore that there is another classification of translation. In this case, within it we find categories such as  judicial translation , which is that which takes place in front of a court.

On the other hand, there is  literary translation  which, as its name indicates, is the one whose object is literary works of various kinds, be they stories, poems, theater or novels. All of this without forgetting what is known as  informative translation,  which is responsible for doing the same with all types of texts and documents that aim to make known a matter in question.

Nor to the so-called  scientific-technical translation which is what, as its name indicates, refers to texts referring to science, technology, the medical field or engineering, among other fields.

translation

NON-CONVENTIONAL EXERCISES FOR THE TRANSLATION CLASS: A DIDACTIC PROPOSAL

An idea that should always be conveyed to translation students when they begin their introductory translation course or their first general translation course is that you cannot be a good translator if you are not first a good writer.

It is well known, and confirmed by experts in translation didactics, that the use of the source and term languages ​​is a necessary competence to be able to successfully undertake translation studies, which tells us that not only does one have to be a good writer, but also, obviously, a good reader, with all that this means from the point of view of discourse studies.

According to Calsamiglia  and Tusón (1999: 15), speaking or writing is constructing textual pieces with a specific purpose in interdependence with a context that is at the same time linguistic, local, cognitive and sociocultural. Hence, the communicative success of a text depends on the competence of its sender in the language in which it is produced, but taking into account its ability to communicate within a specific culture, discursive tradition and situation of enunciation.

Regardless of the linguistic skills of the students who come to translation courses, in most cases, when they are faced for the first time with the task of converting a text written in the source language (LO) to one in the term language (LT), ), it seems that their concentration and efforts are channeled in such a way towards the search for linguistic equivalences between the two languages ​​in question, that, as a consequence, they do not read the source text (TO) nor write the term text (TT) of the proper way.

Sometimes they even surprise themselves at the difficulty they suddenly have in analyzing the texts they receive or at the low linguistic-discursive quality of the texts they produce, given that it does not correspond to what they would be able to do on their own if were not immersed in a translation situation.

And apparently it is a relatively widespread phenomenon already described by specialists in translation didactics. Gile (1995: 21) points out   that when they begin to study translation, most students only pay attention to the linguistic aspects and, upon receiving a text in SL, they simply try to find the closest linguistic equivalent in the TL without awareness of the role of the  translation operation  as such, leaving aside the communicative aspect, essential in reading the TO and writing the TT.

Delisle  and  Bastin (1995: 44) also   point out that the errors that students make are due to the fact that they are “too sensitive to the tyranny exerted by foreign forms, so they interpret the statements of a message in an incomplete or erroneous way, without carry out a sufficient contextual analysis.”

The basic translation process

Various authors have described the mental process of translation from their different theoretical perspectives, but they all agree that there is a first phase of understanding, in which the translator is the recipient of the TO, a second intermediate phase of a non-verbal nature, in which the The translator discards the words and retains the concepts that they represent, and a third phase, in which the translator becomes the issuer of the TT.

In the Interpretive Theory of Translation, also known as “Meaning Theory” and developed in the 1960s by renowned interpretation theorist and conference interpreter  Danica  Seleskovitch , these three stages are called “comprehension,” “ deverbalization ,” and “ restatement.” It should be noted that the theory has the qualifier “interpretive” in its name because the description that this researcher made of the translation process was based on her observations of the activity of simultaneous interpretation.

The author points out that when interpreting, language is not the end, but the means, since what is sought is communication ( Seleskovitch , 1968: 12). And, as  Diehl confirms  (cited by  Bühler , 1996: 262),  deverbalization  characterizes both the interpretive and translation processes: “…in written translation the cognitive processes are basically the same as in simultaneous and consecutive interpretation. ”. (My translation).

It is also worth highlighting the contributions of the Functionalist Theory of Translation, presented in 1978 by the German researcher Hans Vermeer and later defended by researchers such as Christiane  Nord  and Katharina Reiss, among others, according to which the translator must be able to recognize the function of the TO and keep it constantly in mind when performing the translation. The translation activity   is, therefore, in all accounts a communicative activity.

3.2 Competencies and strategies necessary to translate

According to Hurtado (1999: 43), translating requires a variety of knowledge and skills, which allows translation competence to be classified into a series of  subcompetences  (communicative in both languages, extralinguistic, transfer, professional,  psychophysiological  and strategic). 

Kautz  (2000: 19-26), for his part, points out that to translate and interpret, knowledge of general and thematic culture is needed, good handling of the SL and the TL, a good knowledge of both cultures, theoretical and practical knowledge of  translation studies , knowledge of various types of text and the ability to produce them, and knowledge about the practice of the translator’s profession.

Furthermore, the author refers to the most important intellectual, psychological and professional ethical traits that define the future translator or interpreter. It should be noted that the intellectual traits that he mentions are logical, evaluative and analytical thinking, creativity, intuition, the capacity for self-criticism, the ability to address different thematic areas and the ability to express, convince and argue.

Now, when translating, a series of strategies or procedures are put into play aimed at solving the problems encountered. Even translation theorists have not determined what strategies the translator uses when going through the translation process.

However, the  Thinking  Aloud  Protocol  (TAP) technique has been applied, that is, having translators or translation students verbalize their mental processes and taking note of it. Hurtado (1999: 33) points out that thanks to these studies it has been determined that the translator uses certain strategies that are fundamental for translation competence.

These are strategies for both comprehension (differentiation of main and secondary ideas, establishment of conceptual relationships, search for information, etc.) and for reformulation (paraphrasing, retranslation, reformulation out loud, discarding words close to the original, etc. .).

translation

3.3 Teaching translation

Although the  linguistic and extralinguistic subcompetencies  that Hurtado (1999: 43) mentions, as she clarifies later, are not exclusive to translation competency – that is, they can be possessed by any person who knows two languages ​​well and who has a broad culture. In general, the translator possesses them in a special way:

He is not a linguistics specialist, but he must be an exemplary user of languages ​​with a great capacity for understanding in the SL and reexpression in the TL; and he is not necessarily a specialist in any field of knowledge, but he must be able to acquire, by properly documenting himself, the necessary knowledge to be able to translate.

Hence the importance of strengthening these two  subcompetences  with a particular focus oriented to translation.

In this same order of ideas,  Delisle  and  Bastin  (1995: 50) point out that in the translation class a way should be found to develop the most important aspects of the cognitive process typical of  translation activity , that is, logical analysis, interpretation of the meaning of a message through analysis and logical reasoning, sensitivity to the texture of a text, etc.

It is necessary, they point out, to carry out exercises that improve the reflective capacity and analytical faculty of future translators. Hurtado (1999: 16 and 19), for his part, establishes an interesting difference between traditional translation didactics – focused solely on the translation of texts, the analysis of linguistic problems and the offering of a translation proposal that is commented – and didactics with a textual contrastive approach – which introduces contrastive considerations from a point of view of the functioning of the texts (elements of coherence and cohesion, textual typologies), much closer to the reality in which the translator operates.

It is also worth highlighting the fact that various authors reinforce the need for an analysis of the discursive aspects in translation teaching by proposing the need to evaluate the quality of translations from a more holistic point of view, in which the the analysis of the process versus the product ( Gile , 1995: 10-11), or in which the quantitative is combined with the qualitative at a level not only microstructural, but also   macrostructural ,   suprastructural   and   peritextual  ( Larose , 1987), by insisting on go beyond error analysis and evaluate the adequacy of the TT based on its functionality ( Nord , 1991), or by proposing the application of argumentation theory in the evaluation of translations (Malcolm, 2001).

There is no doubt, on the other hand, that it is necessary to emphasize the communicative essence of the translation process which, as noted above, is also typical of interpretation, which is why various specialists consider the application of exercises to be very useful. related to interpretation in the training of translators (Collados, De Manuel and Parra, 2001: 159-174;  Hönig , 1995: 166; Hurtado, 1999: 21;  Nord , 1996: 321).

Interpreters have much less time (and only one opportunity) to understand,  deverbalize  and  reexpress  the meaning of a text in another language, so they must develop a great capacity to make quick decisions and produce a text that is understandable in the other language. language. The allocation of an order, the integration of information, the differentiated creation of associations and the organization of knowledge in a hierarchical manner play an extremely important role in interpretive activity.

Finally, it is necessary to point out that Hurtado (1999: 20-21) has mentioned the current pedagogical insufficiencies in the area of ​​translation, among which he points out the lack of definition of learning objectives related to the difficulties involved in learning to translate, the polarization towards the results linked to the lack of indications on how to make the student grasp the principles that allow him to learn to solve translation problems, and the lack of a methodological framework that includes activities that teach him to translate correctly.

It is necessary, then, to advance in the clarification of objectives and design methodological proposals, differentiating the levels (initiation to translation, specialized translation…) and the types (direct and reverse).  

Furthermore, Hurtado (1999: 45) considers it essential, among other things, to incorporate an integrative conception of translation (text, act of communication and mental process), expand the scope of the objectives towards the process beyond the results, and incorporate a methodology centered on the student, which gives him a more active role and makes him discover the principles he must comply with to correctly develop the translation process, granting a less sanctioning role to the teacher.

linguistic

How artificial intelligence is transforming translation

With the level of globalization that exists today, communication is crucial and language barriers can be a strong obstacle. Businesses and individuals increasingly seek  to communicate with other countries or access their content . This has led to an essential need to find an accurate, reliable and, above all, fast translation.

Luckily,  artificial intelligence (AI) and translation  have found a way to come together to advance solutions that meet this need. And, with this, they are revolutionizing translation technology in different industries. Do you want to know some of the most curious tools from different sectors? I’ll tell you here.

Artificial intelligence and translation in different sectors

These are some of the sectors revolutionized by machine translation and AI.

📚 Education and literature

Machine translation based on artificial intelligence is helping to decipher lost languages ​​and  improve educational  and literary resources .

  • Dead language translation : MIT researchers Jiaming Luo and Regina Barzilay have developed a tool that uses artificial intelligence to  decipher and  translate dead languages ​​. They already got it with Ugaritic and the linear B writing system.
  • StorySign : The Huawei company has developed an application that  translates stories into sign language  so that children with hearing problems can learn to read and enjoy literature.

🎮 Video game industry

In the video game sector, artificial intelligence is helping  players communicate with each other  and have access to games that are not available in their native language.

  • Acer’s SigridWave : Acer has developed a real-time automatic translator within the video game. It is powered by artificial intelligence and allows players to communicate with each other, even if they speak different languages. SigridWave uses natural language processing  and is capable of recognizing both video game slang and different accents or dialects.
  • RetroArch Machine Translation:  The creators of the RetroArch video game emulator have implemented an automatic translator that uses AI to  translate old games from Japanese to English . And translations include both audio and text.

It goes without saying that the impact of machine translation is not limited to the world of video games; It will also affect other entertainment industries. For example, to sectors such as betting, role-playing games, sports broadcasts, virtual reality games and  online roulette games , among others. In short, all types of businesses in the entertainment field that will not hesitate to take advantage of the advantages offered by AI-based translation.

🎬 Communication and entertainment

The communication and entertainment sector is also taking advantage of these technologies to  facilitate access to information  in any language.

  • Automatic translation of YouTube subtitles : A few years ago, YouTube implemented automatic subtitles on its videos. However, recently, they have also implemented  automatic translation of these into several languages ​​powered by artificial intelligence .
  • Meta’s No Language Left Behind : Meta has also leveraged artificial intelligence  to boost minority language translation on its social networks , such as Facebook and Instagram. Additionally, they are collaborating with Wikipedia to implement translations on the web.

📌 The limitations of artificial intelligence in translation

As you can see, there are a variety of very useful tools that not only make communication easier, but also make it accessible. However, although translation and artificial intelligence has come a long way in recent years, it  still has clear limitations .

For starters, the algorithms that power machine translation depend on data. And these  are not always available (or they are, but not enough)  to provide accurate translations. Especially in uncommon languages.

On the other hand, we return to the usual problem: artificial intelligence and algorithms  are not always capable of capturing the nuances of a language . This can be clearly seen with the cultural references, the expressions of each region, etc. AI’s inability to recognize these nuances frequently results in  errors in translation . Therefore, we can say that the union of artificial intelligence and translation, although it is progressing, is still far from being perfect.

📌 The future of translation with artificial intelligence

Despite these limitations, it is undeniable that the future of these technologies is promising. In addition to having generated  a positive impact in several sectors , it has also helped break down language barriers and make it easier for everyone to access all types of content.

Likewise, as with other technologies, this one will also  continue to advance, refining its algorithms and expanding its databases . And not only that, since there are more and more tools available to the general public for free.

Translate AI – Translator

Translate AI turns your Mac into a translation device!

Translate AI – Translator, uses artificial intelligence and machine learning for the best translation. It is a very simple yet powerful translation app that will easily translate any voice, text or image into 100+ languages. Forget the fear of language when you travel to a new country. This small but powerful tool will act as your assistant wherever you go, be it a coffee shop, hotel/taxi bookings, grocery shopping, and even small talk with strangers. This new app can ask for directions and read street signs in seconds.

KEY Features –

1) Voice to voice

Choose from any supported language and speak to translate. The app automatically detects the correct language for fast and accurate translation. your voice and translate it to the chosen output language or you can even read it on the screen.

2) Text to text

Enter the word or sentence you want to translate and receive results in your desired language in seconds!

3) History

Keep a record of all the translations you have done. So you don’t have to translate a word over and over again. Save time!

Supported speech-to-speech languages:

Arabic (Egypt), Arabic (Saudi Arabia), Arabic (UAE), Chinese (Cantonese), Chinese (Mandarin), Chinese (Taiwan), Danish, Dutch, English (Australia), English (UK), English (US). (USA), Filipino, Finnish, French (Canada), French (France) German, Greek, Gujarati, Hindi, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian Bokmål, Polish, Portuguese (Brazil), Portuguese (Portugal), Russian, Slovak, Spanish (Mexico), Spanish (Spain), Spanish (United States), Swedish, Turkish, Ukrainian, Vietnamese

Text-to-text supported languages: Supported over 100 languages

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