Navigating the Ethical Landscape of AI: Real-world Challenges and Responsible Implementation


Introduction: Artificial Intelligence (AI) has transformed the way we live, work, and interact. As AI and machine learning systems become increasingly integrated into our daily lives, the ethical considerations surrounding their deployment become more critical than ever. In this blog, we will delve into the ethical dimensions of AI in practice, exploring the challenges that … Read more

Unveiling the Black Box: Best Navigating the Advancements in Explainable AI (XAI)


Introduction: In the ever-evolving landscape of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML), the inscrutable nature of certain algorithms has long been a stumbling block. The opacity of these so-called “black box” models, where decision-making processes remain hidden, raises concerns about transparency, accountability, and ethical use. However, recent years have witnessed remarkable strides in the … Read more

FREE – Online … Web Our English to Gujarati Translate Tool


FREE – Online … Web Our English to Gujarati Translate Tool



 Translate is the  action and effect of translating  (expressing in one  language  something that has been previously expressed or that is written in a different language). The term can refer both to the interpretation given to a  text  or  speech  and to the material work of the translator.This concept has its etymological origin in Latin. Specifically, we can determine that it comes from the word  tradition , which can be defined as the action of guiding from one place to another. And it is made up of three different parts: the prefix  trans -, which is synonymous with  “from one side to the other” ; the verb  ducere , which means  “to guide” ; and the suffix – cion , which is equivalent to  “action” .

For example:  “The Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges made translations of works by Edgar Allan Poe, Walt Whitman, George Bernard Shaw and other great authors” ,  “The translation of this film is very bad” ,  “The speaker speaks too fast, I think that the translate is not including all its concepts . ”

Types of translate

The types of translate are various. Direct translation is   carried out from a foreign language to the language of the translator (such as the case of Borges translating a text by Poe). Reverse translation ,  on the other hand, takes the form of the translator’s language into a foreign language.

On the other hand, one can speak of literal translation  (when the original text is followed word by word) or  free or literary translation  (the meaning of the original text is respected, although without following the author’s choice of expressions).

However, we cannot ignore that there is another classification of translation. In this case, within it we find categories such as  judicial translation , which is that which takes place in front of a court.

On the other hand, there is  literary translation  which, as its name indicates, is the one whose object is literary works of various kinds, be they stories, poems, theater or novels. All of this without forgetting what is known as  informative translation,  which is responsible for doing the same with all types of texts and documents that aim to make known a matter in question. Nor to the so-called  scientific-technical translation which is what, as its name indicates, refers to texts referring to science, technology, the medical field or engineering, among other fields.


Word or two about our translation tool

Our English to Gujarati Translation Tool is powered by Google Translation API. You can start typing on the left-hand text area and then click on the “Translate” button. Our app then translates your English word, phrase, or sentence into Gujarati.

The translation only takes a few seconds and allows up to 500 characters to be translated in one request. Although this translation is not 100% accurate, you can get a basic idea and with few modifications, it can be pretty accurate. This translation software is evolving day by day and Google Engineers are working on it to make Gujarati translation more intelligent and accurate. Hopefully, one day it will produce near to perfect translation!

Gujarati language is widely spoken. More than 46 million people around the world speak this language. For the rest who cannot speak the Gujarati Language, translating Gujarati to English could be quite difficult. Many websites provide services to translate Gujarati for a few dollars. While it is a good idea to pay for translating lots of text (such as books, articles) and for professional service, there is no point paying for commonly used sentences, greeting messages, and other informal use. For these purposes, this tool can be used.

You can copy the translated text and then share them either on social media such as Facebook, Twitter or email it to your friends or family.

If you have any suggestions, and the translated sentence is way too funny then please share with us on our Facebook page. Finally, don’t forget to give us a like and share it on Facebook with your loved one.

Features you should know:

English sentence and phrase will be translated into Gujarati meaning.

For Eg typing:
“India is multicultural country”  will be translated into  “India is multicultural country”

Use our translator tool as English to Gujarati dictionary.

For E.g.
“Cumin” meaning in Gujarati will be “જીરું (Jirum)”
“Adventure” meaning in Gujarati will be “સાહસ (Sahasa)”

Powered by Google.

High Accuracy Rate.

Instant Online Translation.

Up to 500 characters can be translated into one request.

Unlimited translation.

Get translated text in Unicode Gujarati fonts. This means you can copy and paste it anywhere on the Web or Desktop applications.

This translation tool is FREE.

Five Google Translate functions that you didn’t know about and will get you out of trouble on more than one occasion. The languages ​​will have to be downloaded within the app.

 1. Live pronunciation and translation :  WhatsApp auto-dictation  reduced the actor’s typing effort to a minimum. As if it were Alexa, by pressing the microphone and speaking in Spanish, it automatically translates it into the language you want and you can (by clicking on the speaker icon) listen to the pronunciation without having to write the text. 

2. With the ‘Handwriting’  function  of Google Translate, both on mobile (touch option) and PC (with mouse), you can draw a word and Google will make the corresponding translation

3.  Translation of full web pages : the Google translator can also translate full web pages from one language to another. Simply open the page you wish to translate in your browser, click with the right mouse button and select ‘Translate to Spanish’ (or any other language).

4. How many times have you translated a paragraph – with the typical ‘ copy and paste ‘ – to be able to send an email to your English teacher? It’s not necessary, on the right side (in the translated text window) you have the option with the ‘Share’ button to directly send a  tweet  or an email in the desired language. 

5.  Translation of complete documents , websites and images. A PowerPoint or any other document that you want to translate in its entirety and that, under normal conditions, would take you hours.

Brief history of translation

Translation is the process by which the meaning of a text in one language, or “source text”, is understood and converted to a new text, in another language, called “translated text”, “target text” or “ target text”. When this process is done orally we call it interpretation.


Interpretation is older than writing. The translation had to wait for the appearance of written literature. It is known that there are partial translations of the  Epic of Gilgamesh  (2000 BC) into Near Eastern languages ​​of the time. As is often the case with ancient history, it is difficult to determine when exactly the translation began.

Best English to Gujarati Translate App.

Gujarat Culture13

Best English to Gujarati Translate App



Translate is the  action and effect of translating  (expressing in one  language  something that has been previously expressed or that is written in a different language). The term can refer both to the interpretation given to a  text  or  speech  and to the material work of the translator.

This concept has its etymological origin in Latin. Specifically, we can determine that it comes from the word  tradition , which can be defined as the action of guiding from one place to another. And it is made up of three different parts: the prefix  trans -, which is synonymous with  “from one side to the other” ; the verb  ducere , which means  “to guide” ; and the suffix – cion , which is equivalent to  “action” .

For example:  “The Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges made translations of works by Edgar Allan Poe, Walt Whitman, George Bernard Shaw and other great authors” ,  “The translation of this film is very bad” ,  “The speaker speaks too fast, I think that the translateis not including all its concepts . ”

Types of translation

The types of translation are various. Direct translation is   carried out from a foreign language to the language of the translator (such as the case of Borges translating a text by Poe). Reverse translation ,  on the other hand, takes the form of the translator’s language into a foreign language.

On the other hand, one can speak of literal translation  (when the original text is followed word by word) or  free or literary translation  (the meaning of the original text is respected, although without following the author’s choice of expressions).

However, we cannot ignore that there is another classification of translation. In this case, within it we find categories such as  judicial translation , which is that which takes place in front of a court.

Do the translations yourself

Stop turning to friends and agencies for help whenever you need a quick English ↔ Gujarati translation. Get Mate apps and extensions to get it done yourself, faster and preciser. Our apps integrate   natively with iPhones ,  iPads ,  Macs and Apple Watches. As if Apple had developed them. Plus, you can equip your preferred browser with our best-in-class extensions for  Safari ,  Chrome ,  Firefox ,  Opera  , and  Edge .

We put a lot of effort into making our translation software stand out among machine translators. Mate is designed to maintain the meaning and central idea of ​​the source text. Human translators have met their match: Mate has arrived.

If you no longer want to copy and paste text into Google, Yandex or Bing, you need to try Mate. Not only does it provide you with translations wherever you need them with an elegant double-click, but it also offers you  more privacy . We do not track, sell or harvest your data. Your translations are yours. Think of us as a blindfolded babel fish that was turned into a bunch of beautiful apps to give you a hand with your translations.



is the most spoken language in the world and acts as a bridge between cultures for people around the world. The need for English translation is on the rise, as more and more businesses, governments and organizations recognize the value of communicating across language barriers.

The English translation process involves taking a source document written in one language and converting it to another language without losing the original meaning. This can be as simple as translating a sentence, or as complex as creating an entire novel or corporate report in two different languages.

English translators rely on a variety of tools and techniques to ensure translation accuracy. They must have a thorough knowledge of both languages ​​and be able to accurately interpret nuances in meaning and context. Additionally, linguists who specialize in English translation must have in-depth knowledge of cultural terminology, places, and customs.

It takes years of study and practice to become an effective English translator, and many choose to obtain certification through translator associations or accredited universities. This certification not only demonstrates your expertise, but also ensures that your work meets certain quality and performance standards set by the professional body. The certification also helps English translators stay up to date with the latest developments in the industry.

English translation is a valuable skill that allows people from different backgrounds to communicate with each other and share ideas and experiences. As the world continues to become increasingly globalized and interconnected, English translation is an important asset in business, social and political spheres.

The Gujarati

It is spoken throughout India, and is the official language of Gujarat, spoken by the Gujarati people. This Indo-Aryan language came from Old Gujarati in 1100-1500 THIS, making it over 700 years old. It is also spoken in Dadra, Daman, Dui, and Nagar Haveli, where it is also the official language.

It is the sixth most spoken language in India. More than 4% of India speaks this language, and more than 55 million people speak Gujarati worldwide.

The language is also spoken somewhat throughout Pakistan, and is spoken in Gujarati communities in the Western world, including the US.

Other countries where Gujarati is spoken include:

  • Bangladesh
  • Better
  • Kenya
  • Malawi
  • Mauricio
  • Oman
  • Meeting
  • Singapore
  • South Africa
  • Tanzania
  • Uganda
  • US.
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe

English to Gujarati Translation

Translating from English to Gujarati is more complicated than other languages. The main dialects of Gujarati include:

  • Standard Gujarati
  • East African Gujarati
  • Kathiyawadi
  • Khakari
  • Kharwa
  • Photo
  • Tarimukhi

This language borrows some words from other languages, making some words a little easier to learn. We recommend learning these words first to make the transition from English to Gujarati even easier. Some words you may recognize from the Romance and Germanic languages ​​include:

  • Anaanas (pineapple)
  • Kobee (cabbage)
  • Pagar (fence)
  • Paaun (mould pan)

Gujarati has many vowels and contains almost 10 vowel phonemes (vowels that change the meaning of the word).

Trying to learn Gujarati online? We recommend using machine translation software that has a Gujarati translation tool and can easily translate text to speech, such as the Vocre app, available on  Google Play  for Android or the  Apple Store  for iOS.

Software like Google Translate or Microsoft’s language learning app does not offer the same English translation accuracy as paid apps.

Gujarati Translators

Gujarati English translators and translation services often charge almost $50 an hour. If you are trying to translate simple texts, we recommend entering the text into a language translation software program or application.

Gujarati English translators

More online translation

We offer more online translation in the following languages:

  • Albanian
  • Android
  • Arabic
  • Bengali
  • Burmese
  • Croatian
  • Czech
  • Danish
  • Dutch
  • Gujarati
  • no
  • Hungarian
  • Icelandic
  • Korean
  • Latvian
  • Malayalam
  • Marathi
  • Polish
  • Portuguese
  • Swedish
  • Tamil
  • Telugu
  • punjabi
  • Urdu

Language translator English to Gujarati is, as its name suggests, an application with which you can translate any word or text from English to Gujarati in a matter of seconds from your own Android terminal.

The only thing you will see on the screen in language translator english to gujarati will be a text box where you will have to write the original text in English that you want to translate into gujarati. While it is true, the graphics section will not exactly be its strong point. However, it will serve its purpose correctly. And best of all, without the presence of annoying advertising ads.

language translator english to gujarati is a very useful tool with which you can understand and communicate with people from other countries with total freedom and ease. The only thing you will need is to have an Internet connection.

What considerations are taken into account for the best longitudinal data collection?


What considerations are taken into account for the best longitudinal data collection?

data collection


Data Collection

Data collection is a systematic process of gathering observations or measurements. Whether you are performing research for business, governmental or academic purposes, data collection allows you to gain first-hand knowledge and original insights into your research problem.

While methods and aims may differ between fields, the overall process of data collection remains largely the same. Before you begin collecting data, you need to consider:

  • The aim of the research
  • The type of data that you will collect
  • The methods and procedures you will use to collect, store, and process the data

To collect high-quality data that is relevant to your purposes, follow these four steps.



 The discussion about the meaning of the term longitudinal was summarized by Chin in 1989: for epidemiologists it is synonymous with a cohort or follow-up study, while for some statisticians it implies repeated measurements. He himself decided not to define the term longitudinal, as it was difficult to find a concept acceptable to everyone, and chose to consider it equivalent to “monitoring”, the most common thought for professionals of the time.

The longitudinal study in epidemiology

In the 1980s it was very common to use the term longitudinal to simply separate cause from effect. As opposed to the transversal term. Miettinen defines it as a study whose basis is the experience of the population over time (as opposed to a section of the population). Consistent with this idea, Rothman, in his 1986 text, indicates that the word longitudinal denotes the existence of a time interval between exposure and the onset of the disease. Under this meaning, the case-control study, which is a sampling strategy to represent the experience of the population over time (especially under Miettinen’s ideas), would also be a longitudinal study.

Likewise, Abramson agrees with this idea, who also differentiates longitudinal descriptive studies (studies of change) from longitudinal analytical studies, which include case-control studies. Kleinbaum et al. likewise define the term longitudinal as opposed to transversal but, with a somewhat different nuance, they speak of “longitudinal experience” of a population (versus “transversal experience”) and for them it implies the performance of at least two series of observations over a follow-up period. The latter authors exclude case-control studies. Kahn and Sempos also do not have a heading for these studies and in the keyword index, the entry “longitudinal study” reads “see prospective study.”

This is reflected in the Dictionary of Epidemiology directed by Last, which considers the term “longitudinal study” as synonymous with cohort study or follow-up study. In Breslow and Day’s classic text on cohort studies, the term longitudinal is considered equivalent to cohort and is used interchangeably. However, Cook and Ware defined the longitudinal study as one in which the same individual is observed on more than one occasion and differentiated it from follow-up studies, in which individuals are followed until the occurrence of an event such as death. death or illness (although this event is already the second observation).


Since 1990, several texts consider the term longitudinal equivalent to other names, although most omit it. A reflection of this is the book co-edited by Rothman and Greenland, in which there is no specific section for longitudinal studies within the chapters dedicated to design, and the Encyclopedia of Epidemiological Methods also coincides with this trend, which does not offer a specific entry for this type of studies.

The fourth edition of Last’s Dictionary of Epidemiology reproduces his entry from previous editions. Gordis considers it synonymous with a concurrent prospective cohort study. Aday partially follows Abramson’s ideas, already mentioned, and differentiates descriptive studies (several cross-sectional studies sequenced over time) from analytical ones, among which are prospective or longitudinal cohort studies.

In other fields of clinical medicine, the longitudinal sense is considered opposite to the transversal and is equated with cohort, often prospective. This is confirmed, for example, in publications focused on the field of menopause.

The longitudinal study in statistics

Here the ideas are much clearer: a longitudinal study is one that involves more than two measurements throughout a follow-up; There must be more than two, since every cohort study has this number of measurements, the one at the beginning and the one at the end of follow-up. This is the concept existing in the aforementioned text by Goldstein from 1979. In that same year Rosner was explicit when indicating that longitudinal data imply repeated measurements on subjects over time, proposing a new analysis procedure for this type of data. . Since that time, articles in statistics journals (for example) and texts are consistent in the same concept.

Two reference works in epidemiology, although they do not define longitudinal studies in the corresponding section, coincide with the prevailing statistical notion. In the book co-directed by Rothman and Greenland, in the chapter Introduction to regression modeling, Greenland himself states that longitudinal data are repeated measurements on subjects over a period of time and that they can be carried out for exposures. time-dependent (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, or blood pressure) or recurrent outcomes (e.g., pain, allergy, depression, etc.).

In the Encyclopedia of Epidemiological Methods, the “sample size” entry includes a “longitudinal studies” section that provides the same information provided by Greenland.

It is worth clarifying that the statistical view of a “longitudinal study” is based on a particular data analysis (taking repeated measures into account) and that the same would be applicable to intervention studies, which also have follow-up.

To conclude this section, in the monographic issue of  Epidemiologic Reviews  dedicated to cohort studies, Tager, in his article focused on the outcome variable of cohort studies, broadly classifies cohort studies into two large groups, ” life table” and “longitudinal”, clarifying that this classification is something “artificial”. The first are the conventional ones, in which the result is a discrete variable, the exposure and the population-time are summarized, incidences are estimated and the main measure is the relative risk.


The latter incorporate a different analysis, taking advantage of repeated measurements in subjects over time, allowing inference, in addition to population, at the individual level in the changes of a process over time or in the transitions between different states. of health and illness.

The previous ideas denote that in epidemiology there is a tendency to avoid the concept of longitudinal study. However, summarizing the ideas discussed above, the notion of longitudinal study refers to a cohort study in which more than two measurements are made over time and in which an analysis is carried out that takes into account the different measurements. . The three key elements are: monitoring, more than two measures and an analysis that takes them into account. This can be done prospectively or retrospectively, and the study can be observational or interventional.


When measuring over time,  quality control  plays an essential role. It must be ensured that all measurements are carried out in a timely manner and with standardized techniques. The long duration of some studies requires special attention to changes in personnel, deterioration of equipment, changes in technologies, and inconsistencies in participant responses over time.

There is a  greater probability of dropout  during follow-up. The factors involved in this are several:

* The definition of a population according to an unstable criterion. For example, living in a specific geographic area may cause participants with changes of address to be ineligible in later phases.

* It will be greater when, in the case of responders who are not contacted once, no further attempts are made to establish contact in subsequent phases of the follow-up.

* The object of the study influences; For example, in a political science study those not interested in politics will drop out more.

* The amount of personal attention devoted to responders. Telephone and letter interviews are less personal than those conducted face to face, and are not used to strengthen ties with the study.

* The time invested by the responder in satisfying the researchers’ demand for information. The higher it is, the greater the frequency of abandonments.

* The frequency of contact can also play a role, although not everyone agrees. There are studies that have documented that an excess of contacts impairs follow-up, while others have either found no relationship or it is negative.

To avoid dropouts, it is advisable to establish strategies to retain and track participating members. The willingness to participate should be assessed at the beginning and what is expected of the participants. Bridges must be established with the participants by sending congratulatory letters, study updates, etc.

The frequency of contact must be regular. Study staff must be enthusiastic, easy to communicate, respond quickly and appropriately to participants’ problems, and adaptable to their needs. We must not disdain giving incentives that motivate continuation in the study.

Thirdly, another major problem compared to other cohort studies is the  existence of missing data . If a participant is required to have all measurements made, it can produce a problem similar to dropouts during follow-up. For this purpose, techniques for imputation of missing values ​​have been developed and, although it has been suggested that they may not be necessary if generalized estimating equations (GEE analysis) are applied, it has been proven that other procedures give better results, even when the losses are completely random.

Frequently, information losses are differential and more measurements are lost in patients with a worse level of health. It is recommended in these cases that data imputation be done taking into account the existing data of the individual who is missing.


In the analysis of longitudinal studies it is possible to treat time-dependent covariates that can both influence the exposure under study and be influenced by it (variables that simultaneously behave as confounders and intermediate between exposure and effect). Also, in a similar way, it allows controlling recurring results that can act on the exposure and be caused by it (they behave both as confounders and effects).

Longitudinal analysis can be used when there are measurements of the effect and/or exposure at different moments in time. Suppose that the relationship between a dependent variable Y is a function of a variable , which is expressed according to the following equation :

Y it  = bx it  + z i a + e it

where the subscript  i  refers to the individual, the t at the moment of time and e is an error term (Z does not change as it is stable and that is why it has a single subscript). The existence of several measurements allows us to estimate the coefficient b without needing to know the value of the stable variable, by performing a regression of the difference in the effect (Y) on the difference in values ​​of the independent variables:

Y it  – Y i1  = b(x it  – x i1  ) + a( z i  – z i  ) +
+ e it  – e i1  = b( x it  – x i1  ) + e it  – e i1

That is, it is not necessary to know the value of the time-independent (or stable) variables over time. This is an advantage over other analyses, in which these variables must be known. The above model is easily generalizable to a multivariate vector of factors changing over time.

The longitudinal analysis is carried out within the context of generalized linear models and has two objectives: to adopt conventional regression tools, in which the effect is related to the different exposures and to take into account the correlation of the measurements between subjects. This last aspect is very important. Suppose you analyze the effect of growth on blood pressure; The blood pressure values ​​of a subject in the different tests performed depend on the initial or basal value and therefore must be taken into account.

For example, longitudinal analysis could be performed in a childhood cohort in which vitamin A deficiency (which can change over time) is assessed as the main exposure over the risk of infection (which can be multiple over time). , controlling the influence of age, weight and height (time-dependent variables). The longitudinal analysis can be classified into three large groups.

a) Marginal models: they combine the different measurements (which are slices in time) of the prevalence of the exposure to obtain an average prevalence or other summary measure of the exposure over time, and relate it to the frequency of the disease . The longitudinal element is age or duration of follow-up in the regression analysis. The coefficients of this type of models are transformed into a population prevalence ratio; In the example of vitamin A and infection it would be the prevalence of infection in children with vitamin A deficiency divided by the prevalence of infection in children without vitamin A deficiency.

b) Transition models regress the present result on past values ​​and on past and present exposures. An example of them are Markov models. The model coefficients are directly transformed into a quotient of incidences, that is, into RRs; In the example it would be the RR of vitamin A deficiency on infection.

c) Random effects models allow each individual to have unique regression parameters, and there are procedures for standardized results, binary, and person-time data. The model coefficients are transformed into an odds ratio referring to the individual, which is assumed to be constant throughout the population; In the example it would be the odds of infection in a child with vitamin A deficiency versus the odds of infection in the same child without vitamin A deficiency.

Linear, logistic, Poisson models, and many survival analyzes can be considered particular cases of generalized linear models. There are procedures that allow late entries or at different times and unequally in the observation of a cohort.

In addition to the parametric models indicated in the previous paragraph, analysis using non-parametric methods is possible; For example, the use of functional analysis with  splines  has recently been reviewed.

Several specific texts on longitudinal data analysis have been mentioned. One of them even offers examples with the routines to write to correctly carry out the analysis using different conventional statistical packages (STATA, SAS, SPSS).

How is consent and data collection from minors best addressed?

comercio datos personales menores

How is consent and data collection from minors best addressed?


Data collection

Data collection

Data is a collection of facts, figures, objects, symbols, and events gathered from different sources. Organizations collect data with various data collection methods to make better decisions. Without data, it would be difficult for organizations to make appropriate decisions, so data is collected from different audiences at various points in time.

For instance, an organization must collect data on product demand, customer preferences, and competitors before launching a new product. If data is not collected beforehand, the organization’s newly launched product may fail for many reasons, such as less demand and inability to meet customer needs. 

Although data is a valuable asset for every organization, it does not serve any purpose until analyzed or processed to get the desired results.

Data collection methods are techniques and procedures used to gather information for research purposes. These methods can range from simple self-reported surveys to more complex experiments and can involve either quantitative or qualitative approaches to data gathering.

Some common data collection methods include surveys, interviews, observations, focus groups, experiments, and secondary data analysis. The data collected through these methods can then be analyzed and used to support or refute research hypotheses and draw conclusions about the study’s subject matter.

The right to the protection of personal data: origin, nature and scope of protection.

 Origins and legal autonomy

The approach to the study of any right with constitutional status requires, without a doubt, a reference to its origins, for which, on this occasion, the generational classification of human rights developed at a doctrinal level will be very useful.

In general, historically the recognition of four generations of fundamental rights, individual or first generation rights, has prevailed; public freedoms or second generation rights; social or third generation rights; and rights linked to the emergence of new technologies and scientific development, classified in the fourth generation, these have corresponded to ideological and social moments with their own characteristics and differentiating features.

In particular, the fourth generation is presented as a response to the phenomenon known as “liberties pollution” , a term coined by some authors to refer to the degradation of classic fundamental rights in the face of recent uses of new technology.

Indeed, the technological development that has occurred since the second half of the 20th century has shown the limitations and insufficiency of the right to privacy – first generation right – as the only mechanism to respond to the specific dangers contained in the automated processing of personal information. , which is why starting in the seventies, the dogmatic and jurisprudential construction of a new fundamental right began to take shape: the right to the protection of personal data.

From a theoretical point of view, the reformulation of the classic notion of the right to privacy no longer as a right of exclusion, as it had initially been conceived, but rather as a power to control information relating to one itself, represented a clear breaking point in the conceptualization that had been maintained on it until that moment.


On the other hand, in the jurisprudential context, the legal conformation of this right – which was classified as the right to informational self-determination – originates in a ruling issued by the German Federal Constitutional Court in 1983, declaring the unconstitutionality of a law that regulated the demographic census process at that time. In contrast, Chilean jurisprudence was particularly late in the configuration of the right to the protection of personal data, since its first approximation occurred in 1995, when the Constitutional Court linked it, precisely, to the protection of privacy.

It is true that the right to privacy constitutes an important, if not essential, antecedent in terms of the formation of the right that is the object of our study; however, this does not mean that both should be confused, an issue that in its moment sparked countless debates. Some authors, for example, stated that the right to the protection of personal data constituted a form of manifestation of the particular characteristics that the right to privacy acquires in the computer age, denying the autonomy that it is possible to attribute to it today.

From our perspective, and as the Spanish Constitutional Court was responsible for announcing at the beginning of this century, two fundamental rights closely linked to each other, as well as clearly differentiated, coexist in our legal system: the right to privacy and the right to the protection of personal data. With the first, the confidentiality of the information related to an individual is protected, while with the second the proper use of the information related to a subject is guaranteed, once it has been revealed to a third party, since the confessed data It is therefore not public and, consequently, cannot circulate freely.

Thus, the legal power to have and control at all times the use and traffic of this information belongs entirely to its owner. In other words, the fundamental right to data protection does not constitute a right to secrecy or confidentiality, but rather a power to govern its publicity. In this way, while the right to privacy would be a power of exclusion, the right to protection of personal data is consecrated, instead, as one of disposition.

In accordance with what was stated  above , the latter seems to be the position finally adopted by the Chilean Constitution. In this regard, it is worth remembering that the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) pointed out, in 2015, that our country was in compliance with its personal data protection regulations, pointing out that among its member states, only Chile and Turkey had not yet perfected their legislation on the matter.

On this level, the reform of article 19 number 4 of the constitutional text was framed, which since June 16, 2018 has assured all people “ respect and protection of private life and the honor of the person and their family.” , and also, the protection of your personal data “, adding that ” the treatment and protection of these data will be carried out in the manner and conditions determined by the law .”

As can be seen, the new wording of the Chilean fundamental norm now enshrines the right to the protection of personal data in an autonomous and differentiated manner, a trend adopted for several years by the fundamental charters of other countries in Europe and Latin America, with Chile joining the this majority trend.

 Natural capacity as an essential element for the exercise of personality rights

The tendency followed by the Chilean legal system to give relevance to what is known as natural capacity – or maturity – as an essential substrate on which to base the exercise capacity of children and adolescents, is especially marked in the field of the rights of personality – or in other words, in the field of extra-patrimonial legal acts, and it is precisely in this context that the first voices in favor of maintaining that, although the dichotomy “capacity for enjoyment/capacity for exercise” could still have some relevance in the patrimonial sphere, it was, on the other hand, unsustainable in the extra-patrimonial personality sphere.

It seems that denying the capacity to exercise personality rights in the space when the subject, despite his or her chronological age, meets the intellectual and volitional conditions sufficient to exercise them on his or her own, becomes a plausible violation of dignity and freedom. free development of the personality of the individual, recognized in article 1 of our Constitution as superior values ​​of the regulatory system ( People are born free and equal in dignity and rights ).

child or adolescent

Certainly, it has been discussed whether the distinction between the capacity to enjoy and the capacity to exercise is applicable in the field of personality rights, since the enjoyment or exercise of these rights is personal. Hence, it is difficult to speak of authentic legal representation in this environment, with this representation being very nuanced or being configured rather as assistance or action by parents or guardians/curators in compliance with their duty to care for the child or adolescent especially justified when it comes to avoiding harm.

Given the above and in accordance with the principle of  favor filii , the implementation of personality rights by their legitimate holders can only be limited when their will to activate them is contrary to preponderant interests in attention to the full development of their personality, in the same way that the will of their representatives can be limited   when their intervention is contrary to the interests of the child or adolescent.

Well, it is precisely in that context, in which the idea of ​​adopting the criterion of sufficient maturity, self-government or natural capacity emerges strongly, as a guideline to follow to delimit the autonomous exercise of personality rights, avoiding With this, the person who has not yet reached the age of majority is simply the holder of the right, but cannot, however, exercise it. In this way, the general rule becomes that the girl, boy or adolescent who is sufficiently mature can freely dispose of her or his rights.

With the above meaning, it should be noted that in this new scenario the question is limited to specifying what is meant by showing sufficient maturity, since we are faced with an indeterminate legal concept around which there is no unified legal definition. Each boy and girl is different, and therefore it is very difficult to establish when or not they have the necessary exercise capacity, due to their intellectual development, to be the master of their own person.

How do you ensure the best validity of your data?

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How do you ensure the best validity of your data?




What is Data Collection?

Data collection is the procedure of collecting, measuring, and analyzing accurate insights for research using standard validated techniques.

Put simply, data collection is the process of gathering information for a specific purpose. It can be used to answer research questions, make informed business decisions, or improve products and services.

To collect data, we must first identify what information we need and how we will collect it. We can also evaluate a hypothesis based on collected data. In most cases, data collection is the primary and most important step for research. The approach to data collection is different for different fields of study, depending on the required information.

Validity is an evaluation criterion used to determine how important the empirical evidence and theoretical foundations that support an instrument, examination, or action taken are.  Also, it is understood as the degree to which an instrument measures what it purports to measure or that it meets the objective for which it was constructed. This criterion is essential to consider a test valid. Validity along with reliability determine the quality of an instrument.

Currently, this has become a relevant element within the measurement due to the increase in new instruments used at crucial moments, for example when selecting new personnel or when determining the approval or disapproval of an academic degree. Likewise, there are who point out the need to validate the content of existing instruments.

The validation process is dynamic and continuous and becomes more relevant as it is further explored. The  American Psychological Association  (APA), in 1954, identified 4 types of validity: content, predictive, concurrent and construct.  However, other authors classify it into appearance, content, criterion and construct validity.

Content validity is defined as the logical judgment about the correspondence that exists between the trait or characteristic of the student’s learning and what is included in the test or exam. It aims to determine whether the proposed items or questions reflect the content domain (knowledge, skills or abilities) that you wish to measure.

To do this, evidence must be gathered about the quality and technical relevance of the  test ; It is essential that it is representative of the content through a valid source, such as: literature, relevant population or expert opinion. The above ensures that the test includes only what it must contain in its entirety, that is, the relevance of the instrument.


This type of validity can consider internal and external criteria. Among the internal validity criteria are the quality of the content, curricular importance, content coverage, cognitive complexity, linguistic adequacy, complementary skills and the value or weighting that will be given to each item. Among the external validity criteria are: equity, transfer and generalization, comparability and sensitivity of instruction; These have an impact on both students and teachers.

The objective of this review is to know the methodologies involved in the content validity process. This need arises from the decision to opt for a multiple-choice written exam, which measures knowledge and cognitive skills, as a modality to obtain the professional title of nurse or nurse midwife in a health school at a Chilean university. This process began in 2003 with the development of questions and their psychometric analysis; however, it is considered essential to determine the content validity of the instrument used.

To achieve this objective, a search was carried out in different databases of the electronic collection, available in the University’s multi-search system, using the key words:  content validity, validation by experts, think-aloud protocol/ spoken thought . For the selection of publications, the inclusion criteria used were: articles published from 2002 onwards; full text, without language restriction, it should be noted that bibliography of classic authors on the subject was incorporated. 58 articles were found, of which 40 were selected.

The information found was organized around the 2 most used methodologies to validate content: expert committee and cognitive interview.

Content validity type

There are various methodologies that allow determining the content validity of a  test  or instrument, some authors propose that among them are the results of the  test , the opinion of the students, cognitive interviews and evaluation by experts; others perform statistical analyzes with various mathematical formulas, for example, they use factor formulas with structural equations,  these are less common.

In cognitive interviews, qualitative data is obtained that can be delved into; unlike expert evaluation that seeks to determine the skill that the exam questions are intended to measure. Some experts point out that to validate the content of an instrument, the following are essential: review of research, critical incidents, direct observation of the applied instrument, expert judgment and instructional objectives. The methods frequently mentioned in the reviewed articles are the expert committee and the cognitive interview.

Expert Committee

It is a methodology that allows determining the validity of the instrument through a panel of expert judges for each of the curricular areas to be considered in the evaluation instrument, who must analyze – at a minimum – the coherence of the items with the objectives of the courses, the complexity of the items and the cognitive ability to be evaluated. Judges must have training in question classification techniques for content validity. This methodology is the most used to perform content validation.

It is therefore essential that before carrying out this validation, two problems are resolved: first, determine what can be measured and second, determine who will be the experts who will validate the instrument. For the first, it is essential that the author does an exhaustive bibliographic review on the topic, he can also work with focus groups; This period is defined by some authors as a stage of development.

Expert Committee

For the second, although there is no consensus that defines the characteristics of an expert, it is essential that he or she knows about the area to be investigated, whether at an academic and/or professional level, and that, in turn, he or she knows about complementary areas. However, other authors are more emphatic when defining who is an expert and consider it a requirement, for example, that they have at least 5 years of experience in the area. All this requires that the sample be intentional.

The characteristics of the expert must be defined and, at the same time, the number of them determined. Delgado and others point out that there should be at least 3, while  García  and  Fernández , when applying statistical variables, concluded that the ideal number varies between 15 and 25 experts;  However,  Varela  and others point out that the number will depend on the objectives of the study, with a range between 7 and 30 experts.

There are other less strict authors when determining the number of experts; they consider the existence of various factors, such as: geographical area or work activity, among others. Furthermore, they point out that it is essential to anticipate the number of experts who will not be able to participate or who will defect during the process.

Once it is decided what the criteria will be to select the experts, they are invited to participate in the project; During the same period, a classification matrix is ​​prepared, with which each judge will determine the degree of validity of the questions.

For the process of preparing the matrix, the Likert scale of 3, 4 or 5 points is used where the evaluation of the possible answers could be classified into different types, for example: a) excellent, good, average and bad; b) essential; useful; useful, but not essential or necessary. The above depends on the type of matrix and the specific objectives pursued.

Furthermore, other studies mention having incorporated spaces where the expert can provide their contributions and appreciations regarding each question. Subsequently, each expert is given – via email or in person in an office provided by the researcher – the classification matrix and the instrument to be evaluated.

Once the results of the experts are obtained, the data is analyzed; The most common way is to measure the agreement of the evaluation of the item under review, reported by each of the experts, it is considered acceptable when it exceeds 80%; those that do not reach this percentage can be modified and subjected to a new validation process or simply be eliminated from the instrument.

Other authors report using Lashe’s (1975) statistical test to determine the degree of agreement between the judges; they observe a content validity ratio with values ​​between -1 and +1. When the value is positive it indicates that more than half of the judges agree; On the contrary, if this is negative, it means that less than half of the experts are. Once the values ​​are obtained, the questions or items are modified or eliminated.

To determine content validity using experts, the following phases are proposed: a) define the universe of admissible observations; b) determine who are the experts in the universe; c) present – ​​by the experts – the judgment through a concrete and structured procedure on the validity of the content and d) prepare a document that summarizes the data previously collected.

The literature describes other methodologies that can be used together or individually. Among them are:

– Fehring Model: aims to explore whether the instrument measures the concept it wants to measure with the opinion of a group of experts; It is used in the field of nursing, by the American Nursing Diagnostic Association (NANDA), to analyze
the validity of interventions and results. The method consists of the following phases:

a) Experts are selected, who determine the relevance and relevance of the topic and the areas to be evaluated using a Likert scale.

b) The scores assigned by the judges and the proportion of these in each of the categories of the scale are determined, thereby obtaining the content validity index (CVI); This index is achieved by adding each of the indicators provided by the experts in each of the items, and, finally, it is divided by the total number of experts. Each of these particular indices are averaged, those whose average does not exceed 0.8 are discarded.

c) The format of the text is definitively edited, taking into account the CVI value, according to the aforementioned parameter, those items that will make up the final instrument and those that, due to their low CVI value, are considered critical and must be reviewed are determined. .

An example of a specific use of this model was the adaptation carried out by  Fehring  to carry out the content validity of nursing diagnoses; In this case, the author proposes 7 characteristics that an expert must meet, which are associated with a score according to their importance. It is expected to obtain at least 5 of them to be selected as an expert.

The maximum score is obtained by the degree of Doctor of Nursing (4 points) and one of the criteria for the minimum scores (1 point) is having one year of clinical practice in the area of ​​interest; It is important to clarify that the authors recognize the difficulty that exists in some countries due to the lack of expertise of professionals.

– Q Methodology: it was introduced by  Thompson  and  Stephenson  in 1935, in order to identify in a qualitative-quantitative way common patterns of opinion of experts regarding a situation or topic. The methodology is carried out through the Q ordering system, which is divided into stages: the first brings together the experts as advised by  Waltz  (between 25 and 70), who select and order the questions according to their points of view. on the topic under study, in addition, bibliographic evidence is provided as support.

The second phase consists of collecting this information, by each of the experts, according to relevance, which goes along a continuum, from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree”; Finally, statistical analyzes are carried out to determine the similarity of all the information and the dimensions of the phenomenon. 30

– Delphi Method: allows obtaining the opinion of a panel of experts; It is used when there is little empirical evidence, the data are diffuse or subjective factors predominate. It allows experts to express themselves freely since opinions are confidential; At the same time, it avoids problems such as poor representation and the dominance of some people over others.

During the process, 2 groups participate, one of them prepares the questions and designs exercises, called the monitor group, and the second, made up of experts, analyzes them. The monitoring group takes on a fundamental role since it must manage the objectives of the study and, in addition, meet a series of requirements, such as: fully knowing the Delphi methodology, being an academic researcher on the topic to be studied and having skills for interpersonal relationships.

The rounds happen in complete anonymity, the experts give their opinion and debate the opinions of other peers, make their comments and reanalyze their own ideas with the feedback of the other participants. Finally, the monitoring group generates a report that summarizes the analysis of each of the responses and strategies provided by the experts. It is essential that the number of rounds be limited due to the risk of abandonment of the process by the experts.

The latter is the most used due to its high degree of reliability, flexibility, dynamism and validity (content and others); Among its attributes, the following stand out: the anonymity of the participants, the heterogeneity of the experts, the interaction and prolonged feedback between the participants, this last attribute is an advantage that is not present in the other methods. Furthermore, there is evidence that indicates that it is a contribution to the security of the decision made, since this responsibility is shared by all participants.


What are the advantages and disadvantages of different data collection methods?

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What are the advantages and disadvantages of different data collection methods?

data collection

What is Data Collection?

Data collection is the procedure of collecting, measuring, and analyzing accurate insights for research using standard validated techniques.

Put simply, data collection is the process of gathering information for a specific purpose. It can be used to answer research questions, make informed business decisions, or improve products and services.

To collect data, we must first identify what information we need and how we will collect it. We can also evaluate a hypothesis based on collected data. In most cases, data collection is the primary and most important step for research. The approach to data collection is different for different fields of study, depending on the required information.

Collecting data helps your organization answer relevant questions, evaluate results, and better anticipate customer probabilities and future trends.

In this article you will learn what data collection is, what it is used for, the advantages and disadvantages it has, the skills or abilities that a professional requires to carry out correct data collection, the methods used and some tips to carry it out. cape.

What is data collection?

According to Dr. Luis Eduardo Falcón Morales, director of the Master’s Degree in Applied Artificial Intelligence at the Tecnológico de Monterrey, he explains to us that currently everything generates data in any format, whether written, by video, comments on social networks, tweets, etc. .

“The issue here is that then this data collection begins to collect information to try to find information about the processes on which these data are being generated,” said Falcón Morales.

So we can say that data collection is the process of searching, collecting and measuring data from different sources to obtain information about the processes, services and products of your company or business and to be able to evaluate these results so that you can make better decisions.

What is data collection used for?

Teacher Luis Eduardo indicated that data collection mainly serves to improve continuous improvement processes but it must be understood that it also depends to a large extent on the problem being attacked or the objective set for which said collection is being carried out.

Next, he gives us some uses of data collection:

  • Identify business opportunities for your company, service or product.
  • Analyze structured data (data that is in a standardized format, meets a defined structure, and is easily accessible to humans and programs) in a simple way to understand the context in which said data was generated.
  • Analyze unstructured data (data sets, typically large collections of files, not stored in a structured database format, such as social media comments, tweets, videos, etc.) in a simple way to understand context in which said data were developed.
  • Store data according to the characteristics of a specific audience to support the efforts of your marketing area.
  • Better understand the behaviors of your clients, users and leads.

Data Collection Methods

There are many ways to collect information when doing research. The data collection methods that the researcher chooses will depend on the research question posed. Some data collection methods include surveys, interviews, tests, physiological evaluations, observations, reviews of existing records, and biological samples.

Phone vs. Online vs. In-Person Interviews

Essentially there are four choices for data collection – in-person interviews, mail, phone, and online. There are pros and cons to each of these modes.

  • In-Person Interviews
    • Pros: In-depth and a high degree of confidence in the data
    • Cons: Time-consuming, expensive, and can be dismissed as anecdotal
  • Mail Surveys
    • Pros: Can reach anyone and everyone – no barrier
    • Cons: Expensive, data collection errors, lag time
  • Phone Surveys
    • Pros: High degree of confidence in the data collected, reach almost anyone
    • Cons: Expensive, cannot self-administer, need to hire an agency
  • Web/Online Surveys
    • Pros: Cheap, can self-administer, very low probability of data errors
    • Cons: Not all your customers might have an email address/be on the internet, customers may be wary of divulging information online.

In-person interviews always are better, but the big drawback is the trap you might fall into if you don’t do them regularly. It is expensive to regularly conduct interviews and not conducting enough interviews might give you false positives. Validating your research is almost as important as designing and conducting it.

We’ve seen many instances where after the research is conducted – if the results do not match up with the “gut-feel” of upper management, it has been dismissed off as anecdotal and a “one-time” phenomenon. To avoid such traps, we strongly recommend that data-collection be done on an “ongoing and regular” basis.

This will help you compare and analyze the change in perceptions according to marketing for your products/services. The other issue here is sample size. To be confident with your research, you must interview enough people to weed out the fringe elements.

A couple of years ago there was a lot of discussion about online surveys and their statistical analysis plan. The fact that not every customer had internet connectivity was one of the main concerns.

Although some of the discussions are still valid, the reach of the internet as a means of communication has become vital in the majority of customer interactions. According to the US Census Bureau, the number of households with computers has doubled between 1997 and 2001.

online surveys

Data Collection Examples

Data collection is an important aspect of research. Let’s consider an example of a mobile manufacturer, company X, which is launching a new product variant. To conduct research about features, price range, target market, competitor analysis, etc. data has to be collected from appropriate sources.

The marketing team can conduct various data collection activities such as online surveys or focus groups.

The survey should have all the right questions about features and pricing, such as “What are the top 3 features expected from an upcoming product?” or “How much are your likely to spend on this product?” or “Which competitors provide similar products?” etc.

For conducting a focus group, the marketing team should decide the participants and the mediator. The topic of discussion and objective behind conducting a focus group should be clarified beforehand to conduct a conclusive discussion.

Data collection methods are chosen depending on the available resources. For example, conducting questionnaires and surveys would require the least resources, while focus groups require moderately high resources.

Advantages and disadvantages of data collection

Falcón Morales pointed out that the main advantage, and the most important, is knowledge itself, because knowing is power in some way in your company, it is knowing what your customers [4] think is something negative or positive about your product, service or process.


However, he indicated that the main disadvantage is that people often think that “data collection is magic” and that is not the case. It is a process of continuous improvement, therefore it has no end.

“It is not I apply it once and that’s it, no, it is an endless cycle,” said the director of the Master’s Degree in Applied Artificial Intelligence.

The other disadvantage is the ethical question of the professional or the company to handle the data, “since we do not know what use they may give it.”

Skills to carry out data collection

The director of the Master’s Degree in Applied Artificial Intelligence explained that the main skills are soft skills. They are between them:

  1. Critical thinking
  2. Effective communication
  3. Proactive problem solving
  4. Intellectual curiosity
  5. Business sense

Methods for data collection

Data collection can be carried out through research methods, which are:

  • Analytical method : this method reviews each data in depth and in an orderly manner; goes from the general to the particular to obtain conclusions.
  • Synthetic method : here the information is analyzed and summarized; Through logical reasoning he arrives at new knowledge.
  •  Deductive method : this method starts from general knowledge to reach singular knowledge.
  •  Inductive method : from the analysis of particular data, general conclusions are reached.

research methods

Tips for carrying out data collection

Falcón Morales provided 5 tips to the professional to collect data:

  • Make a plan with the objective to be solved.
  • Gather all the data.
  • Define the data architecture.
  • Establish data governance.
  • Maintain a secure data channel.


What best strategies will you use to minimize response bias in data collection?

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What best strategies will you use to minimize response bias in data collection? Data collection Data collection is the process of collecting and analyzing information on relevant variables in a predetermined, methodical way so that one can respond to specific research questions, test hypotheses, and assess results. Data collection is the procedure of collecting, measuring, and analyzing accurate … Read more