What is Calque or Loan Translation

Loan Translation 

A loan translation is an English compound (for example, superman) that translates a foreign term (in this case, German Übermensch). A calque is another name for a calque (from the French word for “copy”).
A loan translation is a unique type of loan. ” translations are simpler to grasp [than loan words] because they utilize existing components in the borrowing language, whose expressive ability is thereby increased,” according to Yousef Bader.
It goes without saying (ça va sans dire) that French is the source of most English loan translation. A calque (or translation) is a word-for-word translation from one language to another in linguistics. A calque takes a phrase in French and literally translates it into English root-for-root or word-for-word.
Many common phrases in English are calques that have been translated from other languages. For example, a calque of the German Biergarten is Beer Garden, while Adam’s Apple is a calque of the French pomme d’Adam. The English sentences in each of these cases are drawn from a direct literal loan translation of the original. Calque is a loanword from a French noun; it comes from the verb calquer, which means “to copy” or “to trace.”
A “calque” is a term for this form of a loan. It entails adhering to the target language’s syntactical patterns (weekend, “fin de semana”). There’s also “structure calque,” in which the target language’s syntactic composition is novel (science fiction, “ciencia-ficción”).
Calque avoids using foreign terms directly and contributes to the target language’s richness.
loan translation is a construction, not a loan, which is a phonetic and morphologic modification.
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Observations and Examples

Loan Translation 

This can take the form of calquer in the case of structurally complicated lexical elements. The literal condition of a lexical item is translated bit by bit into another language in this type of translation. It can happen while using derivative terms. For example, during the conversion of English to Christianity, the term thriness (threeness) was borrowed translated from Latin trinitas.
Loan translation is also possible for compound terms. In modern English, there are two translations of a German compound word that clearly demonstrate the process. Leberwurst is a German term that is partially loan translated into liverwurst and wholly loan translated into liversausage.”
(“Cultural Congruence and Conflict in the Acquisition of Formulae in a Second Language,” by Koenraad Kuiper and Daphne Tan Gek Lin.) Ofelia Garca and Ricardo Otheguy edited English Across Cultures, Cultures Across English: A Reader in Cross-Cultural Communication loan translation. 1989, Mouten de Gruyter)
the English’skyscraper’ becomes wolkenkratzer (lit., cloud scraper) in German or gratte-ciel (lit., sky scraper) in French; the French marché aux puces is translated into English as ‘flea market.'”
(John Edwards, Oxford University Press, 2013, Sociolinguistics: A Very Short Introduction)
Calque is a term used to describe a style of music that originated in France, Germany, and Spain, decalcomania (and later shortened it to decal) as decalcomania (and later shortened it to decal) as decal, We just took it over in its entirety and naturalized it with English pronunciation loan translation (the original French term, itself a compound, comprises the morpheme calque). However, when we took over the German time Lehnwort, we translated its two morphemes into English, resulting in a loanword.
Borrowings were significantly less prevalent in early English, especially before the Norman Conquest, while calques were far more widespread.
(Random House, 1982, W.F.
*The Vai people of Liberia and Sierra Leone speak the Vai language.
Water of Life
Whisky/whiskey is still known as usquebaugh in Scotland and Ireland.

Loan Translation

Loan Translation 

Calques is another word for loan translation. To calque, as used as a verb, implies to borrow a phrase or term from another language and translate its components into a new lexeme in the target language.
It’s a type of borrowing in which words or phrases are taken from another language and then translated into English. It all boils down to adhering to the target language’s syntactical structures.

Loan translation comes in four main varieties:

1. Syntactic or structural calque :
This results from a faulty link between the pieces of a phrase or sentence loan translation, and it adds a new structure into the language.
2. Calque Typographique
This happens when just the source language’s typographical norms are transmitted to the target language. For example, the use of capital letters in the English language has crept into the Spanish language, as has the usage of specific quotation marks and italics for emphasis.
3. Orthographic Calque
This is most commonly seen in the transliteration of location, person, and ethnicity names. The source language’s writing and spelling norms loan translation, which make little sense in the target language, are replicated without much thought.
When it comes to people’s names in different languages, the break occurs when the alphabets are different, therefore with a few exceptions, when the alphabets are the same, the words are written the same. Names of Saints and Popes, aristocracy and Royal families, historical personalities, and classic authors whose names have a traditional translation are among the exceptions loan translation.
4. Loan Word or Synonymous Calque
This is when two words with similar etymologies or forms have developed differently in their respective languages, to the point that they now have diverse meanings. It occasionally happens because we have two terms in English that are etymologically similar but have somewhat different purposes. Thus, the irrelevant one gets used.
When the alphabets are different, English transliterations typically rely on the source language to provide a starting point, such as the Hanyu Pinyin system for Mandarin Chinese. However, there will always be contested spellings in other languages loan translation, the most evident of which being today’s ‘Mohammed’ – although there are still concerns in other languages such as Farsi and Russian.

Calque

languages, calque (/ kælk /) or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by word-for-word translation or root translation. When used as a verb, “to calque” means to borrow a word or phrase from another language while translating parts of it, in order to form a new lexeme in the target language. For example, the English word “skyscraper” has led to calques in many other languages. [1] Another notable example is the Latin-day day words, associated with ancient German-speaking people and their gods by a practice known as interpretatio germanica: the Latin “Day of Mercury”, Mercurii dies (later “mercredi” in modern French), borrowed from Late Proto-Germanic as ” The Day of Wōđanaz “(* Wodanesdag), which became Wōdnesdæg in Old English, became” Wednesday “in Modern English. [2]
The word calque itself is a borrowed word derived from the French word calque (“tracking, copying, near copy”), while the word loanword is a form of the German word Lehnwort. [3] Calculation differs from phonetic-semantic comparisons: while computation involves semantic translation, it does not include phonetic simulations — that is, keeping the sound quality of a borrowed word by comparing it with the same pre-existing sound or morpheme in the target language. [4]
Proving that a word is calque sometimes requires more text than an unfinished loan word because, in some cases, the same sentence may appear in both languages ​​independently. This is not often the case if the grammar of the proposed calque language is very different from that of the borrowed language, or if the calque contains images that are not easily recognizable.
Types
One system divides calques into five groups. This wording is not universal.
Phraseological calques: idiomatic phrases are translated word for word. For example, the “impossible” calques French çava sans dire.
Syntactic calques: syntactic activities or the construction of language from a source imitates the target language, in violation of its meaning.
Borrowed translation: words translated morpheme by morpheme, or component by element, in another language.
Semantic calques (also known as semantic calories): additional meanings of a source word are transferred to a word that has the same basic meaning in the target language. As explained below, the “computer mouse” was named in English in the same way as the animal; Many other languages ​​have extended their traditional name “mouse” to include a computer mouse.
Morphological calques: word variability is transmitted. Some authors call this morpheme-by-morpheme translation.
Some linguists refer to phonological calque, in which the pronunciation of a word imitates another language. for example, the English word “radar” becomes a Chinese word with the same sound 雷达 (pinyin: léidá). , meaning “to arrive (immediately) as thunder”.
In part
Calques are part, or compounds of loans, that translate parts of the mixture but not others. For example, the name of the Irish digital television service “Saorview” is part of the UK service “Freeview”, which translates the first part of the word from English into Gaelic but leaves the second part unchanged. Other examples include “liverwurst” (<German Leberwurst) and “apple strudel” (<German Apfelstrudel). [Catation needed]

Semantic

The “computer mouse” was named in English after its resemblance to an animal. Many other languages ​​use their own word “mouse” for “computer mouse”, sometimes using a diminutive or, in Chinese, add the word “cursor” (thus “鼠标”, “mouse cursor”). [Catation needed]. At least 35 languages ​​have their own versions of the English term.
Examples

For a more comprehensive list, see List of calques.

Loan versions
The common English term “flea market” is a translation of the French marché aux puces (“market of fleas”). [11] At least 22 other languages ​​pronounce a French expression directly or indirectly in another language.
Another example of a common morpheme-by-morpheme loan-translation, is the English word “skyscraper”, which can be coined using the word “sky” or “cloud” and the word, respectively, “scraping”, “scratching”, “piercing”. “,” sweeping “,” kissing “, etc. At least 54 languages ​​have their own versions of the English word.
The Latin word translātiō (“transfer”) is derived from transferō (“transfer”), derived from trans (“across”) + ferō (“carrying” or “carrying”), which has a rare conjunction of the verb latus. The use of the Latin word reddo (“re” + “do”, “re-render”) which means “translate” has not continued in recent languages.
All Germanic languages ​​(except English, Icelandic, and Dutch), as well as other Slavic languages, have changed their names to “translate” from the Latin translātiō, instead of their German or Slavic roots from Latin. The remaining Slavic languages ​​replaced the word “translation” with another Latin word, trāductiō, which is derived from trādūcō (“cross over” or “cross”) – from trans (“across”) + dūcō, (“lead” or “to bring”).
Western and Eastern Slavic languages ​​(excluding Russian) adopted the translātiō pattern, while the Russian and South Slavic languages ​​adopted the trāductiō pattern. Romance languages, derived directly from Latin, were not required to translate their equivalent words into “translation”. Instead, they simply translated the second of the two variations from Latin, trāductiō.
The English verb “translate” is borrowed from the Latin translātiō, rather than calqued. [14] The Icelandic word þýða (“translate”; corresponding to the German word deuten, “translate”) was never considered to be derived from the Latin language, nor was it borrowed.

What is Loan Interpretation or Calque?

Loan translation is a combination of English (for example, superman) literally translating a foreign word (in this case, German Übermensch), word for word. Also known as calque (from a French word meaning “copy”).
Loan translation is a special form of loan terminology. However, says Yousef Bader, “translation of loans is easier to understand [than loan terms] because it uses the elements present in the borrowed language, their reproductive capacity is enhanced.”
(Language, Speech, and Translation in Western and Middle East, 1994).

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Similar words in Spanish and English
It is understandable (çava sans dire) that English gets its translation from most of the loans from French.

Examples and Observations

“Vocabulary borrowing from one language to another is common. Sometimes in the case of complex lexical objects, this takes the form of a loan translation. In such a translation, the actual type of lexical object is gradually translated into another. Language. threeness) in Old English was translated from Latin trinitas during the English translation of Christianity.
(Koenraad Kuiper and Daphne Tan Gek Lin, “Cultural Compatibility and Conflict in Formula Acquisition in Second Language.” English Across Cultures, Cultures Across English: A Reader in Cross-Cultural Communication, edited by Ofelia García and Ricardo OtheguyMouten de Gruyter, 1989)
“The lesser-known method of borrowing involves the translation of loan terms, such as calques (lit., ‘copies’) produced: ‘English skyscraper’ becomes wolkenkratzer (i.e., cloud scraper) in German or gratte-ciel( lit., sky scraper) in French; French marché aux puces are derived from English as ‘flea market.’ ”
(John Edwards, Sociolinguistics: A Brief Introduction. Oxford University Press, 2013)

French, German, and Spanish Calque

When we borrowed the French word decalcomanie as decalcomania (and later abbreviated it to decal; the original French word, in itself, is a combination of morpheme calque), we simply took it from one piece and did it naturally in the English pronunciation. But when we took the German word Lehnwort actually translated two of its morpheme into English and was the result of a borrowed word.
“The act of a bad mouth… Is a translation of calque or loan: it seems to come from Vai * day ngatmay (curse; literally, ‘bad mouth’)….
“The New World Spanish has named a number of vernacular versions or calques on English models, such as the luna de miel (honeymoon), perros calientes (hot dogs), and conferencia de alto nivel (high-quality conference).”
(W.F. Bolton, A Living Language: The History and Structure of English. Random House, 1982)
* The Vai language is spoken by the Vai people of Liberia and Sierra Leone.

Water of Life

“Whiskey is ‘living water,’ in terms of etymologically. The name is short for whiskeybae, which is another usquebaugh spelling, derived from Gaelic uiscebeatha, meaning ‘living water.’ In Scotland and Ireland, whiskey / whiskey is still called usquebaugh.
“This is a borrowed translation from the Latin aqua vitae, literally ‘living water.’ The dry air from Scandinavia is called aquavit. Russian vodka is water, and, from Russian vodka (water).
In languages, calque (or loan translation) can be defined as a literal translation from one language to another. For example, if you take a phrase in French and literally translate root by root or word for word in the English language, that is calque.
In English we see many examples of common sentences calques translated from other languages. For example; Beer Garden is the calque of the German Biergarten, and Adam’s Apple is the calque of the French pommed’Adam. In both cases, the English phrase is derived from the literal translation of the original text. Calque is a borrowed word derived from the French word – derived from the verb calquer, meaning to copy, to trace.

Loan Translation

Loan translation is just another name for calque. When used as a verb, calque means to borrow a sentence or word from another language while translating parts of it to form a new lexeme in the target language. The loan category where words or phrases are borrowed from another language, each aspect of the phrase is translated. Basically, it respects the syntactical structures of the target language.
Calque contributes to the richness of the target language by avoiding direct use of foreign words. Calque is constructive, unlike loans which are phonetic and morphologic

There are four different types of calque –

1. Sctural or Syntactic Calque

This is the product of incorrect communication between the elements of a phrase or sentence: introduces a new structure in the language.

2. Typographic Calque

This happens when the grammar that is only available in a working language is transferred to a new language. The use of capital letters in the English language has always been in Spanish, as well as the use of certain quotation marks and itals to emphasize it.

3. Orthographic Calque

This often occurs in translating names of places, people and races. The grammar and spelling of grammar of the target language in the target language are copied without much thought. In people’s names in different languages, the breakup occurs when two languages ​​use different letters of the alphabet, so with the exception of a few exceptions, when the letters are the same the words are spelled the same. The exceptions include the names of Saints and Popes, royal families and historical figures and ancient writers where their name has a traditional translation.

4. Paronymous Calque or Loan Word

This is where we have the incorrect correspondence between two words with the same nouns or forms but changed differently in their languages, so that now they have different meanings. Sometimes it happens because we have two words that are etymologically related in English but have a slight difference in meaning, so an insignificant use is used.
The English translation usually relies on the source language to give us a starting point where the alphabet is different, and an example of this is the Hanyu Pinyin system of Mandarin Chinese. But there will always be conflicting spelling in other languages, and perhaps the most obvious today is ‘Mohammed’ – there are still problems arising in other languages ​​- such as Farsi and Russian.
BORRING TERMS AND INTERPRETATION TRANSLATIONS
What are loan terms and translation of loans or calques
To better understand loan terms and translation of loans:
Calque (also known as loan translation): a word or phrase taken from another language and translated literally, literally, from another language.
Although loan name: a foreign word or saying that is kept in its original form in the target language.
Here we will look at some common examples of loan terms and translation of loans
⤷ will also evaluate the advantages or disadvantages of using them in translation.
Borrowing word (loan) compared to calque translation
First, let’s define what kind of word or phrase is appropriate as calque and borrowed word.
Calques and borrowing words in translation Signewords

An important factor to consider here is:

even if the expression is translated into the target language,
or if it appears in its original ‘foreign’ form in the target language.
English uses many French words in everyday conversation, such as:
deja vu
facade
hors d’oeuvre
etc.… Many, many more!
The more common the meanings of these words, the less likely it is that they are usually in italics.
However, when using a very vague loan word that may be unfamiliar to the reader (such as the German zeitgeist, meaning ‘spirit of the season’),
⤷ is usually presented in italics.
Translate expressions Symbols
Let us now consider the following expressions:
Adam’s apple
Blue blood
Both words are literally translated from the original language, in the following order:
French pommed’Adam
Spanish sangreazul
This word-for-word translation and subsequent use in English translates calques or loan translations.

The Importance of English Grammar Names

Calques and loan terms in translation
The growing importance of the English language,
including Silicon Valley’s dominance in the field of research and technology development,
not to mention the endless growth of ‘four’ big technology companies,
it has led to English becoming the language of technology.
In fact, use the words:
podcasts
software
wifi
⤷ For people in countries, all over the world and opportunities to understand what you mean even if they have a high level, intermediate or beginner English, or even if they can not speak it at all.

Similarly:

everyone knows how to take a selfie;
you may have used your smartphone.
⤷ All of these words are examples of loan sharks: they start life in English but other languages ​​have authorized them.
Whether you consider this a good thing or not is a matter of opinion.
You might think that in view of the endless pace of technological change it is probably a good thing that we do not need to find new translations every time a new concept emerges.
⤷ Or perhaps this is another example of the linguistic hegemony of the English language over minor languages, their importance is still being eroded.
Beware of poor calques
Beware of poor calques Symbols Names
If you are signing up for the last time you will probably like the use of calques.
Using a loan translation can add to the richness of your language without having to limit your translation to foreign words.

Be careful though! ⚠️

Although linguists may have no problems when it comes to understanding the word-for-word translation of a foreign word,
⤷ it may not be easy for the average person.
This is especially so when referring to specific areas of expertise such as legal or medical.
Target audience Audience Signatures
Abuse of calques:
it may sound unnatural
and may indicate a lack of intended language knowledge,
⤷ on the translator’s side, whether there is a reason or not.
As before, targeting your target audience is important.
So, for those of you who are trying to find good solutions to difficult source language words, we have a simple message for you

ONE OF THE MOST EFFECTIVE TRANSLATION PROCEDURES: CALQUE

Today we will explain one of the most popular translation methods: calque
Linguistically, calque is actually a word or phrase borrowed from another language by word-for-word, word-for-word translation. The word calque is borrowed from the French language and is derived from the verb calquer which means to copy, trace. Clearly, we use the verb to reduce the amount when we talk about borrowing a word or phrase from another language while translating parts of it to create a new lexeme in the target language.
It is sometimes difficult to prove that a particular word is calque. This usually requires a lot of text compared to a non-translated word because, in some cases, the same sentence may appear in both languages ​​independently. This is less likely to happen if the grammar of the proposed calque is very different from that of the borrowed language or when the calque contains vague images. Calculation differs from pono-semantic comparisons. Although calquing includes semantic translation, it does not include phonetic simulation (i.e., keeping the sound quality of a borrowed word by comparing it with the same pre-existing word or morpheme in the target language).
Calques are often seen in specialized or international fields as a quality assurance (aseguramiento de calidad, an assurance qualité derived from English). Examples in English include a standpoint and a beer garden from German Standpunkt and Biergarten; breakfast from French déjeuner (now meaning lunch in Europe, but retaining the same definition of breakfast in Québec). Other calques can be widely accepted in the target language (such as the view, the beer garden and breakfast as well as the Spanish peso mosca and Casa Blanca from the English flyweight and White House).
The meaning of some calques may not be obvious to most people, especially when it is associated with specific activities or subjects such as science and law. Solución de compromiso is an official Spanish word derived from the English compromise solution and although Spanish lawyers understand it, the meaning is not easily understood by the average person. Failure calque can be extremely unnatural, and it can lead to unwanted jokes, often interpreted as reflecting a lack of translation skills in the target language.

THERE ARE 4 TYPES OF CALQUE:

  1. Paronymous calque or word of borrowing: the result of a miscommunication between two words that have the same type or etymology but have changed differently in their languages ​​in such a way that they now have different meanings.
  1. Orthographic calque: usually derived from translating names of people, places, and races. The spelling and grammar rules of the target language that are absurd or completely meaningless in the target language are copied without much attention.
  1. Typographic calque: occurs when typing principles found only in the source language are transferred to a new language. For example, the capitalization of the English alphabet has begun to take root in Spanish, as well as the use of italics for emphasis and the particular use of quotation marks.
  1. Syntactic or structural calque: is the result of incorrect communication between the elements of a sentence or phrase. The result is the construction of a third language; in this example, Spanglish.

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